Enzymatic reaction dynamics

Dissecting the Dynamics during Enzyme Catalysis: A Case Study of Pin1 Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase

Free energy surfaces have played a central role in studying protein conformational changes and enzymatic reactions over decades. Yet, free energy barriers and kinetics are highly dependent on the coordinates chosen to define the surface, and furthermore, the dynamics during the reactions are often overlooked. Our recent study on the Pin1-catalyzed isomerization reaction has indicated that the isomerization transition events remarkably deviate from the free energy path, highlighting the need to understand the reaction dynamics in more detail. To this end, here we investigate the reaction coordinates that describe the transition states of the free energy and transition pathways by minimizing the cross-entropy function. We show that the isomerization transition events can be expressed by the concerted changes in the improper torsion angle ζ and nearby backbone torsional angles of the ligand, whereas the transition state of the free energy surface involves changes in a broad range of coordinates including multiple protein–ligand interactions. The current result supports the previous finding that the isomerization transitions occur quickly from the conformational excited states, which is in sharp contrast to the slow and collective changes suggested from the free energy path. Our results further indicate that the coordinates derived from the transition trajectories are not sufficient for finding the transition states on the free energy surfaces due to the lack of information from conformational excited states.

Mori & Saito, J.Chem.Theo.COmput. (2020).
Conformational Excitation and Nonequilibrium Transition Facilitate Enzymatic Reactions: Application to Pin1 Peptidyl−Prolyl Isomerase

Conformational flexibility of protein is essential for enzyme catalysis. Yet, how protein’s conformational rearrangements and dynamics contribute to catalysis remains highly controversial. To unravel protein’s role in catalysis, it is inevitable to understand the static and dynamic mechanisms simultaneously. To this end, here the Pin1-catalyzed isomerization reaction is studied from the two perspectives. The static view indicates that the hydrogen bonds involving Pin1 rearrange in a tightly coupled manner with isomerization. In sharp contrast, the isomerization dynamics are found to be very rapid; protein’s slow conformational rearrangements thus cannot occur simultaneously with isomerization, and the reaction proceeds in a nonequilibrium manner. The distinctive protein conformations necessary to stabilize the transition state are prepared a priori, i.e., as conformational excited states. The present result suggests that enzymatic reaction is not a simple thermal activation from equilibrium directly to the transition state, thus adding a novel perspective to Pauling’s view.

Mori & Saito, J.Phys.Chem.Lett. (2019).
Copyright(c) 2020 Shinji Saito All Rights Reserved.